(The following notes for a study I did on the origins and history of US intelligence organizations.)
Within this cult of secrecy weapons research and testing on unconventional weapons was accelerated, and Fort Deitrick, Maryland specialized in bacteriological warfare. (B.W.) In l900, during the U.S. military occupation of Havana, a vicious scourge of yellow fever raged through the cities barrios like a river of death killing and terrifying 14. thousands. Yellow fever is a frightful virus that begins with the sudden onset of fever usually accompanied by a chill and severe pain in the head, back, and limbs. The body temperature spikes swiftly until it reaches a maximum of 103- 105 degrees. Other symptoms include excruciating abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and jaundice. This stage may last from a few hours to several days. In it’s secondary stage the fever flares back to its original elevation, the skin turns yellow, and repeated vomiting occurs, spewing dark blood, usually followed by death. U.S. army doctors led by Walter Reed helped discover that yellow fever is a virus transmitted by mosquito bites and Havana was cleansed of breeding areas.
Sixty years after Dr. Reed’s death many residents of a small north Florida town began to experience symptoms of yellow fever and dengue. Carver Village, whose residents in l960 were exclusively black, reported the mysterious appearance of fevers, bronchitis, typhoid, encephalitis, stillbirths, and deaths. (cockburn) Collaborating under cover of top secret classification, United States Army B.W. researchers at Fort Detrick, had among other things, developed the ability of breeding one hundred and thirty million mosquitoes a month. The Army, in a biological warfare test, released these insects over Savannah, Georgia and Avon Park, Florida but Carver Village was selected to determine the productivity of targeted transmission of yellow fever and dengue by mosquito’s. (Cockburn New Statesmen 28-1-94 p22)
Fort Deitrick, fifty miles from Washington D.C., was 15. designated, by presidential directive in l942, as the United State’s principle biological and chemical warfare research center. (Leonard A. Cole,Totowa, N.J., Rowman and Littlefield, l988) Fort Deitrick, a l983 army brochure reported, studies “some of the most virulent and pathogenic microorganisms which are threats to U.S. military forces.” ibid. The sixteen page document goes on to list some of the organism’s and agents studied including ” the Lassa fever virus, Ebola virus, various hemorrhagic fever viruses, botulism and anthrax toxins, T-2 and other mycotoxins, equine encephalomyelitis, Q fever, tularemia, yellow fever, and Rift valley fever”. ibid 36
In l947 the World War Two Allies began the prosecution of twenty three German physicians, at Nuremberg, accused of committing crimes against humanity including human medical experimentation. U.S. Brigadier General Telford Taylor charged, in his opening remarks, that the defendants included “leaders of German scientific medicine with excellent international reputations” and that “all of them have in common a callous lack of consideration and human regard for, and an unprincipled willingness to abuse their power, over the poor, unfortunate, defenseless creatures who had been deprived of their rights by a ruthless and criminal government.” (Psychiatry and the CIA: Victims of Mind Control p214 American Psychiatric Press London , l990) He added, the self-evident, that all of them had violated their Hippocratic oaths. 16.
Among the defense arguments was that human experimentation for which no consent was given had been conducted routinely throughout the world. The defense cited ll,000 example’s appearing in medical literature. Dr. Andrew Ivy, an American, testified for the prosecution that he was unaware of any deaths occurring in the cases cited and that informed consent was the ethical cornerstone of human experimentation. ibid. Emerging from these proceedings were a set of ten principles known as the Nuremberg Code of Medical Ethics. The first principle begins with “The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential”.
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